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Prevention of hospital acquired infection

Preventing Healthcare-associated Infections Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are a threat to patient safety. CDC provides national leadership in surveillance, outbreak investigations, laboratory research, and prevention of healthcare-associated infections Results: Hospital-acquired infections result in significant increases in morbidity, mortality rates, and cost and are a focus of efforts at reduction. Conclusion: I discuss efforts specific to each of the most common infections and a philosophical approach to prevention that strives to achieve zero potentially preventable hospital-acquired. 5.3.1 Cleaning of the hospital environment. 5.3.2 Use of hot/superheated water. 5.3.3 Disinfection of patient equipment. 5.3.4 Sterilization. Chapter VI. Prevention of common endemic nosocomial infections. 6.1 Urinary tract infections (UTI) 6.2 Surgical wound infections (surgical site infections) 6.2.1 Operating room environment Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections National Patient Safety Goal #7 . 2 Course Goals After completing this course, you should be able to: 1. Name 3 basic principles of infection prevention. 2. Name 2 MDRO's seen at the hospital 3. State the 5 elements of the Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection PREVENTION OF HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS AN ASSESSMENT at TWO PUBLIC-FUNDED PHILIPPINE HOSPITALS. b) study the proceedings of the VTT interactive conference experience and, employ as the template to follow when undertaking the project processes (14) c) be mindful of budgetary limits that may likely pose added obstacles to HAI-control.

HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS (HAIs) are a major burden on health care costs in the U.S. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least one in 25 patients in U.S. hospitals is dealing with an HAI on any given day. HAIs are more than just added costs; they can cause irreparable bodily harm, drive the costs of health care up and even result in death Isolation or cohorting of colonized/infected patients is a cornerstone of infection prevention and control Hospital acquired infections: Strategies for prevention August 15, 2016 Your hospital or clinic likely runs efficiently and adheres to strict government mandates regarding cleanliness and disinfection. You may find, however, that a number of patients are still contracting hospital acquired infections Hospital-acquired respiratory tract viruses: The morbidity and mortality of hospital-acquired respiratory tract infection, particularly due to influenza, is well described. 15 A recent study detected viruses in 22% of patients diagnosed with hospital-acquired pneumonia. 16: Administration of influenza vaccine to staff and vulnerable hospital.

Preventing Healthcare-associated Infections HAI CD

Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infection

  1. Hospital acquired infections: The different common sources of infection, their routes of spread and the growing antimicrobial resistance. Also includes a discussion on hospital Infection prevention and control guidelines and the universal and standard precautions
  2. How Nurses Can Prevent Hospital Acquired Infections. Nurses can make a big difference in preventing hospital acquired infections through evidence-based practice, nursing research, and patient education. Following these basic steps can help keep your patients healthy. 9. Follow universal infection prevention precaution
  3. Prevention and Control of Hospital-acquired Infections 7 VRE may be slightly higher in Ontario and Quebec combined than in Canada as a whole. As Figure 1 explains, a concern with C. difficile is the risk of outbreaks because many people in hospitals take antibiotics
  4. A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a serious HAI that occurs when germs (e.g., bacteria) enter the bloodstream through the central line (a long flexible tube placed in a large vein that empties out near the heart). These infections result in thousands of deaths each year and several million dollars in added costs to the U.S. health care system
  5. Last, but not least, we have to search for new therapeutic strategies to combat resistant bacterial infections. Prevention of Infection. Majority of infections caused by MDR bacteria are of nosocomial origin (Matta et al., 2018), and these MDR pathogens can reside in hospitals for years (Chng et al., 2020)

As part of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) prevention, nurses should initially focus on the principles of infection prevention and monitor each element of the fundamental skills bundle (head of bed elevation, oral hygiene, patient mobility, and coughing and deep breathing) to reduce HAP risk. Preventing hospital-acquired pneumonia - American. Prevention of hospital-acquired infections is a crucial process in the clinical setting. Therefore, as a nurse, one has to reduce the threat of infections, locate possible sources of a problem and eliminate them to ensure patients' well-being (Singanayagam, Singanayagam, Wood, & Chalmers, 2011)..

Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are infections people get while they're receiving health care for another condition. HAIs can happen in any health care facility, including hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, end-stage renal disease facilities, and long-term care facilities Infection prevention and control is the discipline concerned with preventing healthcare-associated infections; a practical rather than academic sub-discipline of epidemiology.In Northern Europe, infection prevention and control is expanded from healthcare into a component in public health, known as infection protection (smittevern, smittskydd, Infektionsschutz in the local languages)

WHO Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: A

  1. Infections caught in the hospital. A nosocomial infection is contracted because of an infection or toxin that exists in a certain location, such as a hospital. People now use nosocomial infections.
  2. Approximately 1 in 10 hospitalized patients will acquire an infection after admission, resulting in substantial economic cost ().The primary cost is that patients with hospital-acquired infections have their stay prolonged, during which time they occupy scarce bed-days and require additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions ().Estimates of the cost of these infections, in 2002 prices.
  3. Increasing geriatric population and expansion of healthcare sector is driving the Global Hospital Acquired Infection Control Market. Hospital Acquired Infection Control Market Size, Share, Growth, Trend & Hospital Acquired Infection Control Market Analysis & Forecast 2026 By Product, By Application, By Technology, By Disease, By End User, By Company, By Region, Forecast & Opportunities, 202
  4. 2. The organization must have infection control manual, which should be periodically updated. 3. The infection control team is responsible for surveillance activities in identified areas of the hospital. 4. The organization should take actions to prevent, reduce the risk of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) in patients and employees. 5
Virus Infection Prevention Stock Vector - Image: 55693587

Guide to Prevention of Hospital Aquired Infection

The prevention of hospital-acquired infection has recently received increased prominence as infection rates have been propelled into the spotlight of mandated public reporting, together with expectations of getting to zero as the benchmark for infection incidence. These revolutionary initiatives were initially directed toward surgical. Effect of Chlorhexidine Bathing Every Other Day on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Surgical ICU: A Single-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial Compared with soap and water, chlorhexidine bathing every other day decreased the risk of acquiring infections by 44.5% in surgical ICU patients Hospital Acquired Infections Infection Prevention Click on each of the boxes to find 4 ways to prevent the spread of infections: Hand Hygiene is the si spread of germs. Use alcohol gel or or contact with the Use Standard Precaut Perform hand hyg Use the correct pe gown, mask, and

10 Steps to Preventing Spread of Infection in Hospitals

The role played by contaminated surfaces in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(7):687-99. pmid:21666400 . View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 11. Dancer SJ. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection Start studying Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of reducing the prevalence of hospital acquired infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance (Mathur 613). Education plays a key role in implementing hand washing and prevention of hospital acquired infections However, it wasn't always that way, and yet today, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) still occur. The CDC's HAI Data Report states that On any given day, about one in 31 hospital patients has at least one healthcare-associated infection Informatics tools underutilized in prevention of hospital-acquired infection. A new study has measured the awareness, adoption and use of electronic medical record systems and health information.

7 strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections

About 80-95% of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections originate from urinary catheters. 99 Urinary catheters should be used only if necessary and should be removed as soon as practicable.99, 100 Some studies have indicated that early removal of urinary catheters can reduce urinary tract infection rates by up to 40%. 101 About 15% of. infection prevention and control needs and priorities. ‡HSE Health Protection Surveillance Centre. Point Prevalence Survey of Hospital-Acquired Infections & Antimicrobial Use in European Acute Care Hospitals: May 2012. Republic of Ireland National Report; 2012. HSE Health Protection Surveillance Centre. Annual Epidemiological Report. 2014; (9. To the Editor—Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are infections that patients develop during the course of their hospitalization. Reference Horan, Andrus and Dudeck 1 Patients who develop HAIs are usually infected exogenously when exposed to a healthcare facility, procedure, staff, visitors, and/or other patients such that prevention of hospital-acquired infection is central to. The inability to disentangle a posteriori effects of multiple infection prevention strategies. The launch in 2004 in the United Kingdom of a national MRSA screening program (study factor) was refreshed in 2006 and reviewed for success in 2008 and was identified as a national success. 68 - 70 Patients who were initially screened on admission were considered to have a higher risk of MRSA, and.

Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) remain one of the leading safety concerns amongst patients and healthcare providers. A report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicates that HAIs result in about 1.7 million infections and cause an estimated 99,000 linked deaths every year (Patient CareLink, 2019) The prevention of hospital-acquired infection depends on the continuous and concerted efforts of all those who design, administer, and work in hospitals. Microbiologists - whose training and experience should have made them famil­ iar with the causes of communicable disease and the sources and routes o Hospital acquired infection prevention is standardized guide lines contain multitude protocols needed to be implemented by health care workers to reduce hospital acquired infections. Objective: To assess health care workers knowledge, attitude and practice towards hospital acquired infection prevention at Dessie referral hospital Nowadays, Hospital-acquired infection is one of the significant issues, as the mortality rate is frequently increasing. This may be due to the unhygienic environment of various medical clinics and hospitals, a wide range of antibiotic uses. Nosocomial infections are those which are acquired by the patient within 48-72 h or 3 days of admission in [

Hospital acquired infections: Strategies for preventio

  1. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a serious complication of an acute care admission, particularly for patients noted to be at risk. HAP can be reduced when infection prevention measures are followed and nursing care is delivered following evidence-based practice guidelines
  2. For the last few decades, hospitals have taken the hospital-acquired infections seriously. Several hospitals have established infection tracking and surveillance systems in place, along with robust prevention strategies to reduce the rate of hospital-acquired infections
  3. Hospital-acquired infections are a common, costly, and potentially lethal patient safety problem [1, 2].The most common hospital-acquired infection is urinary tract infection (UTI), which accounts for almost 40% of all nosocomial infections [].Most hospital-acquired UTIs are associated with urinary catheters, a commonly used device among hospitalized patients
  4. Introduction. Hospital acquired infections (HAIs), also called nosocomial infections, are a serious public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality[].Moreover, HAIs can prolong the length of hospital stays and increase costs for healthcare systems [].The annual financial losses due to HAIs, including direct costs only, are estimated at approximately € 7 billion in Europe.
  5. Many of these infections can be prevented through the use of proper procedures and precautions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hospitals receive reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for services provided and based on hospital-acquired infection scores, hospitals may be charged.
  6. A new tool to prevent the spread of hospital-acquired infections in the era of COVID-19. A passive monitoring tool can detect hospital-acquired infections early and potentially help reduce contagion. This year, COVID-19 added an additional layer of risk to patients who entered the U.S. healthcare system

Healthcare‐acquired infections: prevention strategies

The role of nurse in prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections. Nurses play a pivotal role in preventing hospital-acquired infections (HAI), not only by ensuring that all aspects of their nursing practice is evidence based, but also through the right way that is used by the nurse managers in teaching their staff nurses Last, but not least, we have to search for new therapeutic strategies to combat resistant bacterial infections. Prevention of Infection. Majority of infections caused by MDR bacteria are of nosocomial origin (Matta et al., 2018), and these MDR pathogens can reside in hospitals for years (Chng et al., 2020)

Video: AHRQ's Healthcare-Associated Infections Program Agency

Hospital acquired infections (HAIs), or commonly known as nosocomial infections, are infection acquired from the hospital by patients who are admitted for other reasons. In order for an infection to be considered as nosocomial, it should have been occurring for more than 48 hours after the patient's admission Nosocomial infections add significantly to the economic burden of managing the underlying disease that has lead to hospitalization of the patient. More than 90% of reported infections are bacterial where as viral, fungal or protozoal infections are less commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) are infections that people may catch when they are receiving care in a hospital. All healthcare facilities should have infection prevention & control procedures and policies, and staff should take every precaution to avoid occurrence of HAI. Many types of infection can be picked up during healthcare including.

Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections - SE Healthcare

Aetiology of nosocomial infections. Intravascular device related infections and infections acquired through the respiratory tract are among the most common nosocomial infections in critically ill patients.4 Among the numerous risk factors for acquiring a nosocomial infection, the length of hospital stay is the most important. (box 1) Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Public Health Focus: surveillance, prevention, and control of nosocomial infections. MMWR. October 1992. 41(42):783-787. Hughes JM. Study on the efficacy of nosocomial infection control (SENIC Project): results and implications for the future. Chemotherapy. 1988. 34(6. According to the CDC, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) account for an estimated 1.7 million infections and 99,000 associated deaths each year in American hospitals. A recent study found HAIs to be the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, costing the healthcare industry $6 billion annually WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH, Prevention of hospital-acquired infections, A practical guide 2nd edition, (2010),1. [3] WHO, Infection prevention and control in health care: time for collaborative action, Regional Committee for the EM/RC57/6 Eastern Mediterranean Fifty-seventh Session Original: Arabic, Agenda item 4 (d), (August 2010), 2. [4] A. 1 Two Medline products - the Prefilled SwabFlush™ Syringe with SwabCap® and ReadyPrep CHG® 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate Cloth - are among Newsweek's Best Infection Prevention Products 2021.. The list highlights companies whose products are most promising for helping patients and healthcare workers avoid infection, according to Newsweek, which compiled the list in partnership.

Prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections relies on specialised infection prevention and control staff in charge of elaborating, implementing and monitoring local preventive measures such as hand hygiene, patient isolation and surveillance. View resources on infection control training. Directory: Guidance on prevention and control The economic rationale for preventing hospital-acquired infections has been discussed (5,6) and can be summarized as follows: hospital-acquired infections take up scarce health sector resources by prolonging patients' hospital stay; effective infection-control strategies release these resources for alternative uses. If these resources hav

Increase in Hospital-Acquired Carbapenem-Resistant

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 3% of hospitalized patients developed a healthcare-associated infection in 2015 (about 1 in 31, or 687,000 patients in total). About 72,000 patients with these infections died while hospitalized.   Most of these infections are preventable The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million patients suffer from hospital-acquired infections every year and nearly 100,000 of them die. Most of these medical errors are preventable. Hospital-acquired infections result in up to $4.5 billion in additional healthcare expenses annually. The U.S. government has responded to this financial loss by focusing on healthcare.

Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) CDC Winnable

  1. Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HACs) are conditions that a patient develops while in the hospital being treated for something else. These conditions cause harm to patients. Hospitals and healthcare providers are focused on reducing specific HACs that occur frequently, can cause significant harm, and are often preventable based on existing evidence
  2. Health care-associated infections are largely preventable events that can cause significant illness—and even death—particularly in vulnerable elderly patients. Nurses are responsible for most direct patient care in health care settings, so they are closely involved with infection control and prevention. Research led by nurse scientists on infection control has helped provide a foundation.
  3. Hospital Acquired Infections Causes and Prevention - About 5-10% of patients develop HAl Hospital Acquired Infections or nosocomial infections. Hospital acquired infections are difficult to treat,cause epidemic problems, costly, have high morbidity, are preventable., There is a high incidence of nosocomial infections in patients on ventilators
  4. Hospital-Acquired Infections: Current Trends and Prevention. Christine Boev, Elizabeth Kiss. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America 2017, 29 (1): 51-65. 28160957. Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are the primary cause of preventable death and disability among hospitalized patients
  5. hospitals is the spread of MRSA (staphylococcus aureus). This pathogen remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. Current 'typing' methods for the genome to identify the pathogen include phage typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) but these methods have serious limitations when used to investigate the finer details of infection.
  6. Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections. Sentinel Event Alert Issue 52: Preventing infection from the misuse of vials. Addendum to Sentinel Event Alert Issue 20: Exposure to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. R3 Report Issue 3 - Influenza Vaccination. Preventing Central Line-Associated Infections
  7. Most Hospital Acquired Infection can be prevented through readily available and relatively inexpensive strategies such as compliance with recommended infection prevention practices such as: Hand hygiene. Appropriate use of personal protective equipment. Following aseptic techniques stringently

The control and prevention of hospital-acquired infections

prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections • Ensures that: - suitable equipment, devices and products are available to minimise and effectively manage hospital-acquired infections - reusable equipment, instruments and devices are reprocessed in a manner consistent with relevant national and international standards and i These infections are also called hospital-acquired infection. Studies in the passed have reported that during hospitalization, at lest five percent of patients become infected. Similarly, a study carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States estimates that roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections. Director of Infection Control Texas Children's Hospital. Texas Children's Hospital is committed to providing the highest-quality care possible for children and families. It has fully embraced a culture of safety, quality and transparency. In fact, the health system shares publicly its performance on multiple nationally recognized quality. Australian guidelines for the prevention and control of infection in healthcare, 2010, National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government.; Healthcare associated infection, 2017, Health, NSW Government, Australia.; Patient safety: what you can do to be a safe patient, Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health. Rise in C.difficile infection as the most common hospital acquired infection prompted Joint Commission to identify CDI as one of National Patient Safety Goals. Joint Commission has issued a new Medication Management standard addressing antimicrobial stewardship (MM.09.01.01) applicable to all hospitals, critical access hospitals and nursing.

Hospital acquired infection and its preventio

In this module you will learn the basic concepts of infections, Chain of infection transmission, commonly occurred hospitals acquired infections, factors influencing hospital-acquired infections and various measures to be taken for effective Infection Prevention and Control acquired infection; and how well hospital acquired infections are controlled through prevention, detection and containment measures in Acute NHS Hospital Trusts in England (NHS Trusts) The Abc Of Infection Control And Prevention 762154 PPT. Presentation Summary : Risk of HIV infection from sharps injury is about 0.3% or 1 in 300. Hep B. Risk of Hep B infection from sharps injury is 6 to 30% depending on hep B antige

Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI): Prevention Tips

in the control of hospital acquired infections. The document covers the basic principles of infection control, role of health care workers, bio‐waste management and elaborates on the steps to be followed for setting up of an effective infection control in hospitals Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) Prevention What is HAP? Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) is an infection in the lung that occurs more than 48 hours after admission to a hospital. It is an infection that was not present before the patient came to the hospital. HAP is the second most common hospital acquired infection

2008 HHS Steering Committee for the prevention of HAIs Strategies Action plan for the prevention of HAI (CDC, 2015) Infection control assessment tools, targeted assessment for prevention Prevention toolkits, basic infection control and prevention methods Protection of healthcare personnel (CDC, 2015 Hospital-acquired infections affect millions of patients worldwide each year and result in massive preventable healthcare costs. Many of the organisms that cause these infections survive on routine healthcare equipment and are easily transmitted from patient to patient when healthcare professionals and facilities do not comply with infection prevention and control practices Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program What is the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program? The HAC Reduction Program encourages hospitals to improve patients' safety and reduce the number of conditions people experience from their time in a hospital, such as pressure sores and hip fractures after surgery Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Public Health Focus: surveillance, prevention, and control of nosocomial infections. MMWR. October 1992. 41 (42):783-787. Hughes JM. Study on the efficacy of nosocomial infection control (SENIC Project): results and implications for the future The global hospital acquired infection testing market estimated to reach US$ 1.5 Billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 17.5% from 2017 to 2021. HAI by test (blood stream associated infection, MRSA infection, Hospital-acquired pneumonia, surgical associated infection, UTI, Gastroenteritis, puerperal fever, etc.)

Influenza unmasked | London Health Sciences Centre

Effective infection prevention and control strategies require reliable data describing the epidemiology of hospital acquired infections (HAIs), and this is currently lacking in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, types and risk factors associated with HAIs in acute care hospitals in Northern Nigeria. A pilot point-prevalence survey was conducted in three acute. Objectives In order to maximise the prevention of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance, data on the incidence of HAIs are crucial. In Ethiopia, data about the occurrence of HAIs among hospitalised paediatric patients are lacking. We aim to determine the incidence and risk factors of HAIs among paediatric patients in Ethiopia

Healthcare-Associated Infections Healthy People 202

This manual, divided into 10 chapters, discusses different aspects of prevention of nosocomial infections. Topics range from the role of hospital personnels, different prevention strategies and commonly-encountered pathogens. This manual was developed to be a practical, basic resource which may be used by individuals with an interest in nosocomial infections and their control, as well as those.. work on infection prevention project. The workgroup generated tools and audits to screen hospital infection rates and monitor compliance of C diff infection control. Moreover, environmental cleaning and C diff patient transfers protocols are still being modified. The theme for my global aim statement came from a Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of hospitalized patients may have benefit in reducing hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HABSIs). However, the magnitude of effect, implementation fidelity, and patient-centered outcomes are unclear. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of CHG bathing on prevention of HABSIs and assessed fidelity to implementation of this behavioral. The Causes and Risk Factors of Hospital-Acquired Infections It was during the 1950s and early 1960s when researchers began investigating the nature of hospital-acquired infections. A notable portion of the entire body of literature noted that there are three significant causes or risk factors of HAIs centered on inadequate health care practices

Infection control measuresInfection ControlGram-Negative Bacteria Antibiotic Susceptibility forEmerging Therapies for Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator

Global hospital acquired infection control market is segmented into product, application, technology, disease, end user, region, and company. Based on product, market is further divided into sterilizers, disinfectors, endoscope reprocessors and others. Disinfector segment is expected to account for major market share for the forecast period. In American hospitals alone, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that HAIs account for an estimated 1.7 million infections and 99,000 associated deaths each year. Of these infections: 32 percent of all healthcare-acquired infection are urinary tract infections; 22 percent are surgical site infections acknowledged expertise in the prevention and control of hospital acquired infection and infectious disease in order to develop the adjustment for potential differences in risk factors to be used for public reporting.[PHL 2819 5.(b)] The TAW has met five times including the first meeting on May 5, 2006. The list o Hospital-Acquired Infection Diagnosis. Inconsistent utilization of the CDC stds for. diagnosing and classifying hospital-acquired infectiosn. Delay in transporting specimens to lab. Inadequate personnel training re obtaining samples. Inconsistent use of techniques specified in P&P for obtaining samples. Misattribution of source(s) of infection. Two Medline products - the Prefilled SwabFlush™ Syringe with SwabCap® and ReadyPrep CHG® 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate Cloth - are among Newsweek's Best Infection Prevention Products 2021.. The list highlights companies whose products are most promising for helping patients and healthcare workers avoid infection, according to Newsweek, which compiled the list in partnership.