Rh negative pregnancy management

˜.˜.1.1 Management in the delivery room (post-partum) A. i. Active management During the active management feto-maternal transfusion is enhanced. However, considering the poor availability of the Rh negative blood and the potential for post partum haemorrhage active management of the third stage is not discourage RHESUS( RHD) NEGATIVE ANTENATAL MANAGEMENT SETTING Maternity Services FOR STAFF Midwifery &obstetric staff PATIENTS Rhesus negative antenatal women GUIDANCE Introduction Each year in England and Wales there are about 105,000 births to RhD negative women, some 17% of all births (NICE, 2002). RhD negative women who carry an RhD positive fetus may. The sensitised Rh-negative woman  Postpartum management of the neonate - Baby, if alive should be admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit - An urgent exchange blood transfusion is indicated in moderate to severely affected neonates - Phototherapy for mild affectation. 59. 02/09/16 http://www.facebook.com/imezi 59..

At 28 weeks of pregnancy—A small number of Rh-negative women may be exposed to Rh-positive blood cells from the fetus in the last few months of pregnancy and may make antibodies against these cells. RhIg given at 28 weeks of pregnancy destroys these Rh-positive cells in the woman's body. This prevents Rh-positive antibodies from being made Usually your Rh factor blood type isn't an issue. But during pregnancy, being Rh-negative can be a problem if your baby is Rh-positive. If your blood and your baby's blood mix, your body will start to make antibodies that can damage your baby's red blood cells. This could cause your baby to develop anemia and other problems Rhesus Negative Blood Group:Antenatal Management Screening All antenatal women should be tested for blood group and blood group antibodies at their first antenatal visit and at 28 weeks gestation only. Women who have irregular blood group antibodies (eg Kell, Kidd, Duffy etc) detected on screening (except passive anti- Rh sensitization during pregnancy can only happen if a woman has Rh-negative blood and only if her baby has Rh-positive blood. If the mother is Rh-negative and the father is Rh-positive, there is a good chance the baby will have Rh-positive blood. Rh sensitization can occur Rh-immune globulin (RhIgG)* 300 mcg (300 mcg covers 15 ml fetal cells) is given at 28 weeks'. Postpartum if the antibody screen is negative a second dose of RhIgG is given if the infant is Rh-positive or Du-positive. *Rh-immune globulin is an antibody that will help to remove any Rh positive cells in the mother's blood

Management of non-RhD red blood cell alloantibodies during pregnancy; Overview of antepartum fetal surveillance; Patient education: Pregnancy in Rh-negative people (The Basics) Postnatal diagnosis and management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; Preimplantation genetic testing; RhD alloimmunization in pregnancy: Overvie

Rh-negative pregnant women can be exposed to the Rh protein that might cause antibody production in other ways too. These include: blood transfusions with Rh-positive blood ; miscarriage; ectopic pregnancy; When Is a Baby at Risk? Rh antibodies are harmless until the mother's second or later pregnancies The Management of Women with Red Cell Antibodies during Pregnancy This is the first edition of this guideline. Executive summary of recommendations Prepregnancy counselling Women with red cell antibodies, particularly if there is a risk of fetal anaemia or if compatible donor re

Rh o (D) immune globulin (Rhogam) is indicated within 72 hours for all Rh-negative patients with abdominal trauma or ectopic pregnancy, and in those who undergo uterine aspiration Management of non-RhD red blood cell alloantibodies during pregnancy; Patient education: Pregnancy in Rh-negative people (The Basics) Postnatal diagnosis and management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; Preimplantation genetic testing; Red blood cell antigens and antibodies; RhD alloimmunization in pregnancy: Management Most of the time, being Rh-negative has no risks. But during pregnancy, being Rh-negative can be a problem if your baby is Rh-positive. If your blood and your baby's blood mix, your body will start..

If an Rh negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh positive baby (the baby can inherit the Rh factor from an Rh positive father), the baby's blood enters the mother's blood circulation sometime during the pregnancy, usually at around 28 weeks However, Rh factor becomes important during pregnancy. If a woman is Rh-negative and her baby is Rh-positive, then the woman's body will approach the Rh-positive protein as a foreign object, if her.. The Rhesus factor, or Rh factor, is a certain type of protein found on the outside of blood cells. People are either Rh-positive (they have the protein) or Rh-negative (they do not have the protein). This distinction mostly matters when you are Rh-negative and your child is Rh-positive. Appointments 216.444.6601. Appointments & Locations 8. DIAGNOSIS Routine blood grouping and typing for all antenatal mothers on 1st visit. If Rh-ve-, husband's blood group. If negative-normal pregnancy. If positive-indirect Coomb's test to look for isoimmunisation at 24 weeks. If negative for antibodies-treat as nonisoimmunised Rh-ve pregnancy. 9

Rhesus RHD negative Antenatal managemen

  1. Having an Rh negative blood type is not an illness and usually does not affect your health. However, it can affect your pregnancy. Your pregnancy needs special care if you're Rh negative and your baby is Rh positive (Rh incompatibility). A baby can inherit the Rh factor from either parent
  2. Rh incompatibility in pregnancy nursing NCLEX maternity review: management, pathophysiology, Rhogam shot, and hemolytic disease of the newborn.What is Rh inc..
  3. istration of Rh D immune globulin reduced the rate of alloimmunization in at-risk pregnancies from approximately 13-16% to approximately 0.5-1.8% 2 3. The risk was further reduced to 0.14-0.2% with the addition of routine antepartum ad
  4. Women should make sure they are protected from rubella before they get pregnant. Infection with rubella virus causes the most severe damage when the mother is infected early in pregnancy, especially in the first 12 weeks (first trimester). During 2005-2018, 15 babies with CRS have been reported in the United States
  5. RhD immunoglobulin is recommended for all pregnant women in Australia who are RhD negative: in the 28th and 34th week of your pregnancy if there is concern that your baby's blood cells may have entered your bloodstream after birth if your baby is RhD positiv
  6. It is reserved for pregnant women, who are Rh positive or Rh-D negative with negative indirect Coombs test (ICT) for Rh-D antibodies, with a past obstetric history suggestive of isoimmunization (birth of a baby with features of hydrops, neonatal jaundice or history of postnatal exchange transfusion)
  7. al trauma, such as from a car accident

Management of Rh negative pregnancy - SlideShar

  1. These issues have made the management of Rh-negative pregnancy a huge challenge . Despite the fact that the prevalence of Rh-negative phenotype is significantly lower among Africans than Caucasians, the Rh alloimmunization remains a major factor responsible for perinatal morbidity in Ethiopia, and resulted in the compromise of the woman's.
  2. The Rh factor (ie, Rhesus factor) is a red blood cell surface antigen that was named after the monkeys in which it was first discovered. Rh incompatibility, also known as Rh disease, is a condition that occurs when a woman with Rh-negative blood type is exposed to Rh-positive blood cells, leading to the development of Rh antibodies
  3. 10 days post pregnancy cessation). KEY PRINCIPLES . All pregnant women should be typed for ABO and Rh (D) as early as possible during each pregnancy. All Rh negative women who are pregnant or recently pregnant (up to 10 days post pregnancy cessation), should be provided with information both verbal and written o

1. An Paul Med Cir. 1953 Mar;65(3):173-80. [Management of the Rh negative pregnancy]. [Article in Undetermined Language] MELLONE O. PMID: 1306574 Rh incompatibility is a condition that occurs during pregnancy if a woman has Rh-negative blood and her baby has Rh-positive blood. Learn more about causes, risk factors, screening and prevention, signs and symptoms, complications, diagnoses, treatments, and how to participate in clinical trials

The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy ACO

therapy in Rh-negative patients. Management. Figure 1. provides an algorithmic approach to the man-agement of trauma during pregnancy. 3. MINOR TRAUMA. Management of minor trauma is limited to. Problems arise only with Rh-negative mothers and Rh-positive babies. Usually the first pregnancy goes fine. It's a subsequent Rh-positive baby who may be at risk. The mother themselves are in no. If RH negative Mother is Sensitized: • Pathologic jaundice occurs in fetus • Management includes: • Amniocentesis tests during pregnancy to determine amt. of fetal bilirubin in fluid (delta OD level). • Give fetal blood transfusions (PUB) with O negative blood prn during pregnancy. • At birth, send vial of fetal cord blood to la

Rh-negative women can usually expect to get their first RhoGAM shot during their third trimester, although this can vary depending on your specific situation. Most physicians will treat all Rh negative moms with RhoGAM between 28 and 32 weeks of pregnancy, within 72 hours of delivery and anytime there is vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. When a pregnant woman visits her doctor for the first time about her pregnancy, she has her blood tested for Rh factor. If the mother is Rh negative, then the father takes the blood test too. If the father is Rh positive, there is a potential for Rh incompatibility to develop Rh-negative mothers should be followed closely by their providers during pregnancy. Special immune globulins, called RhoGAM, are now used to prevent RH incompatibility in mothers who are Rh-negative. If the father of the infant is Rh-positive or if his blood type is not known, the mother is given an injection of RhoGAM during the second trimester

Anti-D administration in pregnancy for preventing Rhesus alloimmunisation. Women whose blood group is Rh-negative sometimes form Rh-antibodies when carrying a Rh-positive baby, in response to the baby's different red blood cell make-up. This sensitisation is more likely to happen during birth, but occasionally occurs in late pregnancy An Rh-negative woman become alloimmunized to the D antigen present on fetal red blood cells (RBCs) during the first Rh-incompatible pregnancy. The first pregnancy is rarely affected because the number of Rh antibodies produced by the mother during primary immunization is low and the antibodies are usually IgM in nature [2].IgM can't cross placental barrier Second pregnancy: Rh incompatibility will occur during the second pregnancy IF the child again is Rh-positive (this won't be an issue if the child is Rh-negative). There is a high probability of this happening if an Rh-positive father and Rh-negative mother have another child. Pathophysiology of how Rh Incompatibility Affects the Bab During pregnancy, an Rh-negative woman can become sensitized if she is carrying an Rh-positive fetus. Things that increase the risk of blood mixing and sensitization during pregnancy include: Delivery. Abdominal trauma, such as from a car accident. Abdominal surgery, such as a cesarean section If the mother is Rh-negative and her baby is Rh-positive, during pregnancy (and especially during labor and delivery) some of the fetus's Rh-positive red blood cells may get into the mother's.

Management of the Rhesus Negative Mother

Rh-Factor Blood Type and Pregnancy American Pregnancy

How Blood Type Impacts Pregnancy . Your blood type is made of two parts: the blood-type group—A, B, O, AB—and the Rh factor. Rh factor is a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. When present, a persons blood type is Rh-positive (such as A+ or O+). When the Rh protein is absent, the blood type is Rh-negative (such as AB- or B-) pregnancy for an Rh negative pregnant woman and the Cost-Effectiveness of the Management of Rh-Negative Pregnant Women Four scenarios were compared: 1. the current situation, i.e., the routine. Rh factor is a protein on red blood cells. Rh incompatibility is when a mother has Rh-negative blood and her baby has Rh-positive blood. Rh isoimmunization is when the blood from the baby makes the mother's body create antibodies that can harm the baby's blood cells Chemical Pregnancy Symptoms and Causes - Chemical or biochemical pregnancy is a type of early miscarriage in which hormones are detected early in the pregnancy but a gestational sac is not visible on the ultrasound yet. This type of early miscarriage happens before the fifth week of pregnancy. HCG or human chorionic gonadotropin levels, the pregnancy hormone, can be detected by a pregnancy. Rhesus incompatibility is a preventable cause for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, hydrops fetalis and still births. The prevalence of the Rh-negative blood group among Indian woman varies from 2% - 10%. Despite declining the incidence of Rhesus incompatibility, due to availability of anti-D immunoglobulin, and improved antenatal care of the Rh-negative pregnant woman, it still accounts for.

Rh Sensitization During Pregnancy CS Mott Children's

Rh alloimmunization in pregnancy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. This has been designated as a pay-to-view presentation by the person who uploaded it. And this concludes its free preview. You can view it all now for just $ ( More info... ) I've already paid for this presentation and would like to view it now A person with Rh-negative blood who makes Rh antibodies is called Rh sensitised. Reasons for the foetal blood to pass on to the mother • Amniocentesis • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) • Bleeding during pregnancy • Manual rotation of a baby in a breech presentation before labor • Trauma to the abdomen during pregnancy

If the Rh-negative mother is antibody positive, then a confirmatory study, such as a Coombs test, is needed to direct further management and monitoring of the pregnancy; If the Rh-negative mother is antibody negative, paternal Rh testing can be performed as well status of that person would be O Rh negative (expressed as O negative). Rh isoimmunization is the development of antibodies against the Rh antigens present on the surface of RBCs [1]. The important Rh antigen responsible for majority of cases of severe Rh isoimmunization is Rhesus D antigen. The other atypical Rh antigens with a potential to. Rh Negative Blood and Pregnancy. You are probably somewhat familiar with blood types. Your mom may have told you that you were O+ or B-, etc. Blood is grouped by type into A, B, AB, or O and also by the Rh factor, either negative or positive. Most people are Rh positive. This means they have an antigen on their red blood cells for the Rh factor

Management of Alloimmunization First affected pregnancy vs. subsequent Fetal effects tend to be mild in first affected Tends to worsen with each pregnancy First affected Follow titers Screening test Positive titer means fetus is at risknot affected Use the same lab (variability A clinical management scheme consisting of four zones is outlined. Rh-negative fetuses have minimal invasive procedures. Fetuses at risk of death undergo early cordocentesis for evaluation and therapy. Values that fall in between can be separated into two zones on the basis of the degree of risk O36.01 is a non-specific and non-billable diagnosis code code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of maternal care for anti-d [rh] antibodies. The code is not specific and is NOT valid for the year 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions. Category or Header define the heading of a category of. nancies and termination of pregnancy are often lacking in patients' medical notes due to poor data management. These issues have made the management of Rh-negative pregnancy a huge challenge [6]. Despite the fact that the prevalence of Rh-negative phenotype is significantly lower among Africans than Caucasians, the Rh alloim h rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1). The routine use of Rh D immune globulin is responsible for the reduced rate of red.

Mangement of Rh Disease and Isoimmunizatio

  1. Blood group management & clinically significant antibodies Obstetrics & Gynaecology Page 3 of 13 Blood Group & Antibody Screening in Pregnancy Antenatal testing protocols Table 1- Antepartum blood grouping & antibody screening at KEMH Gestation 1st visit 19-20 Weeks 28-30 Weeks 36 weeks On admission Rh(D) Positive ANC women G&S (if no curren
  2. Management. Rh disease is increasingly rare because Rh-negative mothers are given the drug RhoGAM at 28 weeks of gestation and immediately postpartum, and this prevents the formation of antibodies in an Rh-negative mother. Rh-positive mothers do not have to worry, even if the father is Rh negative
  3. Management of non sensitized Pregnancy Management of non sensitized Pregnancy Bleeding after 20 weeks of gestation. Check for fetal red blood cells in maternal circulation by Kleihauer test. Check for maternal antibodies ( ICT ) if negative. Give ( 500 IU / 100 mcg ) anti D to the mother within 72 hours from the bleeding .


The most common cause of Rh incompatibility is exposure from an Rh-negative mother by Rh-positive fetal blood during pregnancy or delivery. As a consequence, blood from the fetal circulation may leak into the maternal circulation, and, after a significant exposure, sensitization occurs leading to maternal antibody production against the foreign Rh antigen When a subchorionic bleed is suspected prior to 20 weeks' gestation, we recommend reduced activity, recommend against any travel, and instruct mom to go to hospital should vaginal bleeding, cramps or contractions occur. As the pregnancy progresses, recommendations may include: RhoGam, if Mother is Rh negative Management of Ectopic Pregnancy Overview. Fortunately, the care of patients with suspected EP has greatly improved over the years. The first successful surgery for EP was performed in 1883, Almost 15% of patients are Rh negative and are at risk for carrying an Rh positive fetus. As Rh positive fathers greatly outnumber negative ones, and.

RH Negative Philippines is a network of blood donors and donees of the rare RH- blood type, which held its fourth annual general assembly recently at City State Hotel in Ermita, Manila. The gathering aims to encourage people with RH negative blood type to donate their blood to save lives.. Management of ectopic pregnancy. Ninety-five per cent of ectopic pregnancies are situated in the fallopian tube. 12 Other, rarer sites include the cervix, ovary, other abdominal sites or in a caesarean section uterine scar. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy may co-exist with an intrauterine pregnancy (heterotopic pregnancy)

Rh Incompatibility During Pregnancy (for Parents

Rh Incompatibility. Rh incompatibility is a mismatched blood type between a pregnant mother and the baby she is carrying. It once was a serious medical problem for the baby. Today, Rh incompatibility rarely is serious or life threatening, thanks to early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy. Rh factor is a protein located in red blood cells Rh isoimmunization in Sub-Saharan Africa indicates need for universal access to anti-RhD immunoglobulin and effective management of D-negative pregnancies. Abstract: Transplacental or fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) may occur during pregnancy or at delivery and lead to immunization to the D antigen if the mother is Rh-negative and the baby is Rh.

Paras Advanced Centre. We offer services for CVS, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, fetal blood transfusion, special twin clinic and fetoscoopy. Advanced sonography during pregnancy should be done at the end of 3rd (Nuchal), 5th (Anomaly) and 8th (Growth doppler) months. 3D/4D sonography can be used for a more detailed evaluation [on the problem of the management of pregnancy and labor in women with rh-negative blood]. DASHKEVYCH VIe Pediatr Akus Ginekol , 105:47-49, 01 Jan 196

Updated Management protocols of Rh negative pregnancy. Nov 12, 2020 • 2h . Anil Kumar G V. 766K watch mins. In this class, I am going to describe recent changes in Management Protocols of Rh-negative pregnancy Recent changes in the calculation of inj.Anti D doses.. This topic is a Potential topic for all exams.... found to be Rh negative should be rescreened in the second trimester and given RhoGAM at 28 weeks and again after delivery, if the infant is Rh positive. • Hct or Hgb . Blood volume in pregnancy increases more than red cell volume and hematocrit typically falls. Therefore Hct or Hgb levels should be monitored for signs of anemia

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management

Alloimmunization, often called Rh-isoimmunization or Rh incompatibility was first described in Rh negative women with an Rh-positive fetus, but it can occur with many other blood type incompatibilities. It is a condition that may occur during pregnancy when there is an incompatibility between your blood type and your baby's blood type If the father or baby is not conclusively shown to be Rh-negative, RhoGAM should be given to a Rh-negative mother in the following clinical situations to prevent Rh immunization: After delivery of an Rh-positive baby; Routine prevention of Rh immunization at 26 to 28 weeks of pregnancy; Maternal or fetal bleeding during pregnancy from certain. I think this is also best during pregnancy. You want to build up a strong blood supply in your baby and have the most nourishing uterine environment. Moondragon has more guidelines on her site - these are meant for before sensitization or for moms avoiding Rhogam, but they could be helpfu to you: Rh negative guidelines at Moondragon's

Rh Factor Test - Rh Sensitization During Pregnanc

  1. istered an immune globulin injection
  2. istration of Rh (D) immune globulin is done to women who are Rh-negative at 28 weeks of pregnancy. RhIG is given as an injection to the mother in the first 72 hours after birth of an Rh-positive child to further prevent the woman from for
  3. (On a sidenote, I like the song. Not sure if it by Jan Hammer who also did the Miami Vice Theme, but it sounds very similar.) I have access to the pictures of thousands of rh negative people through my fanpage, so I have to tell you that I have detected a similarity amongst the looks of rh negative people not too far (if distant at all) from the looks of the Basque people featured in above video
  4. If the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, the baby has at least a 50% chance of being Rh positive. Rh isoimmunization can happen if the baby's Rh positive blood enters the mother's blood flow. This may happen during: Miscarriage; Trauma ; Ectopic pregnancy; Induced abortion; Amniocentesis or other pregnancy procedures—rar
  5. Rh incompatibility occurs when a pregnant woman whose blood type is Rh-negative is exposed to Rh-positive blood from her fetus, leading to the mother's development of Rh antibodies.These antibodies have the potential to cross the placenta and attach to fetal red blood cells, resulting in hemolysis, or destruction of the fetus's red blood cells. . This causes the fetus to become anemic.

Rh-negative Pregnancy - Cause, Diagnosis and Treatmen

  1. The Rh factor of positive and negative can lead to problems between a mother and the developing fetus, a condition known as mother-fetus incompatibility. In some cases, the mother must receive the Rho(D) immune globulin. Lori-Lynne A, Webb, COBGC, CPC, CCS-P, CCP, CHDA, explains the diagnostic and procedure coding options for Rho(D) immune globulin
  2. Rhesus D negative in pregnancy. Rhesus disease occurs during pregnancy when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby. Everybody has one of 4 blood types (A, B, AB or O). You inherit your blood group from a mix of your parents' genes. These blood types are further identified as being either positive or negative
  3. If a mother is Rh negative and has not been sensitized, she is usually given a drug called Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg), also known as RhoGAM. This is a specially developed blood product that can prevent an Rh negative mother's antibodies from being able to react to Rh positive cells. Many women are given RhoGAM around the 28th week of pregnancy
  4. An Rh negative woman can become alloimmunized to Rh antigen if exposed to blood from an Rh positive fetus. Theoretically, this alloimmunization can occur even in early pregnancy While anti-D immune globulin has clearly been shown to be beneficial in preventing alloimmunization in 2nd and 3rd trimester pregnancy, there is no evidence supporting.
  5. concerning pregnancy • Identify outcome measures to support the development of practice-based evidence that can ultimately be used to improve clinical guidelines. 2009 UPDATE VERSION OF ThE GUIDELINE In 2003, the first DoD/VA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Uncomplicated Pregnancy was implemented
  6. ant than Rh negative ones. So a woman with Rh negative blood who conceives a child with a Rh positive man will likely have an Rh positive child

Rh Incompatibility: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Expectant Management of a Twin Pregnancy with Complete

Rhesus (Rh) Factor: Incompatibility, Complications & Pregnanc

Only 15% of women are Rh negative. Let's Talk About Rh Sensitization. We will start with the fact that there are four types of blood. You were born with one of these types of blood - A, B, AB or O. In addition, blood is also classified as Rh positive or Rh negative. One important reason for testing your blood is to determine if you are Rh. This video discusses the rhesus D antigen on red blood cells. Please note that there are other types of rhesus antigens on red blood cells and this video onl.. Rh incompatibility, 1st pregnancy: Mother is Rh negative and baby is Rh positive in the 1st pregnancy, which triggers the formation of maternal antibodies (IgM). This scenario does not affect the 1st baby. Image by Lecturio American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 409 12th Street, SW, PO Box 96920, Washington, DC 20090-6920. Official Citation: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 192. American College of Obstetricians and Gyne-cologists If given only after delivery or termination of pregnancy, treatment is occasionally ineffective because sensitization can occur earlier during pregnancy. Therefore, at about 28 weeks, all pregnant women with Rh-negative blood and no known prior sensitization are given a dose of Rho(D) immune globulin. Some experts recommend a 2nd dose if.

Anti D prophylaxis- Dr

Rh negative pregnancy - SlideShar

Rh factor blood test - Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clini

Management of Spontaneous Abortion - American Family PhysicianAlgorithm for the management of breech presentation

Chapter-08 Rh-Negative Pregnancy. BOOK TITLE: Obstetrics & Gynecology. Author. 1. Saxena Richa ISBN. 9789350907016. DOI. 10.5005/jp/books/12499_9. Edition. 1/e. Publishing Year Female Infertilty: Core Principles and Clinical Management. Jayant Mehta, Bryan Woodward. Copy Citatio chapter 5 Nursing Care of Women with Complications During Pregnancy Objectives 1. Define each key term listed. 2. Explain the use of fetal diagnostic tests in women with complicated pregnancies. 3. Describe antepartum complications, their treatment, and their nursing care. 4. Identify methods to reduce a woman's risk for antepartum complications Rh-negative blood lacks the Rh (D) antigen as compared with Rh-positive blood. Because this antigen only exists in someone who is Rh positive, problems arise during pregnancy when a woman with Rh-negative blood is pregnant with a fetus with Rh-positive blood. Rh incompatibility is defined as a sensitization that occurs when an Rh-negative. Incidence • Rh-negative in the European and American whites- about 15-17% • Insignificant in China (1%) and almost nil in Japan. • About 60% of Rh-positive men -heterozygous and 40%- homozygous at the D locus. Overall Rh-negative woman having the chance of Rh-positive fetus is 60%, irrespective of the father's genotype. • Immunization is unlikely to occur unless at least 0.1 mL of.